After this began a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan, which later escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of President Yanukovych and his cabinet and the establishment of a new government.These events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014, which continue.After a final resurgence under the rule of Vladimir II Monomakh (1113–1125) and his son Mstislav (1125–1132), Kievan Rus' finally disintegrated into separate principalities following Mstislav's death.
The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, literature and music.
By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture flourished in a wide area that included parts of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region.
However, both occasions would ultimately see Ukraine's territories consolidated into a Soviet republic, a situation that persisted until 1991, when Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War.
Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but sources since then have moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses.
On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a large heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace and industrial equipment.
In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria.
At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, and the Khazars took over much of the land.
During the reign of his son, Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054), Kievan Rus' reached the zenith of its cultural development and military power.
The state soon fragmented as the relative importance of regional powers rose again.
It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future.